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AIX Reference for Sun Solaris Administrators

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AIX Reference for Sun Solaris Administrators Learn the differences and similarities between AIX 5L and Solaris 8 Provides a quick reference for each topic Helps Sun Solaris system administrators understand AIX in a quick and easy way

Arkadiusz Rybakowski Juan Murguia Sivaramakrishna Perubotla Terje Tonnessen KyeongWon Jeong

ibm.com/redbooks

International Technical Support Organization AIX Reference for Sun Solaris Administrators September 2002

SG24-6584-00

Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Notices” on page xv.

First Edition (September 2002) This edition applies to IBM ^ pSeries and RS/6000 Systems for use with the AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.1 Operating System, Program Number 5765-E61, and is based on information available in May, 2002. Comments may be addressed to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. JN9B Building 003 Internal Zip 2834 11400 Burnet Road Austin, Texas 78758-3493 When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute the information in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you. © Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2002. All rights reserved. Note to U.S Government Users – Documentation related to restricted rights – Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.

Contents Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii The team that wrote this redbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii Comments welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Chapter 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Solaris and AIX: A quick feature summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 Overview of features for Solaris 7 and Solaris 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Overview of features of AIX Version 4.3 and AIX 5L Version 5.1 . . . . 3 1.2 Systems administration overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.1 System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2 Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3 Introduction to pSeries (and RS/6000) architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3.1 POWER2 Super Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.2 POWER3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3.3 POWER3 II chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3.4 PowerPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3.5 RS64 processor family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3.6 POWER4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chapter 2. Software packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2 Software packaging in Solaris 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3 Software packaging in AIX 5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter 3. Installing and upgrading tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.1 Hardware requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.1.1 Supported platforms for Solaris 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.1.2 Supported platforms for AIX 5L Version 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.2 Software terminology in AIX 5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3 Installation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.4 AIX installation process from product CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.5 Option 1 of the Installation and Maintenance menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002

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3.5.1 Installation disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.6 Option 2 of the Installation and Maintenance menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.7 Option 3 of the Installation and Maintenance menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.8 Begin installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.9 Installation flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.10 Configuration Assistant menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.11 Verifying correct installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.12 Maintenance updates and patching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.12.1 Obtaining maintenance levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.12.2 Installing maintenance levels and fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.12.3 Removing a fix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.13 Installing and removing additional software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.13.1 Installing software under Solaris 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.13.2 Removing software under Solaris 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.13.3 Software states under AIX 5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.13.4 Installing software under AIX 5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.13.5 Listing installed software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.13.6 Software maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.14 Install OS on another disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.14.1 Benefits of alternate disk installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.14.2 System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.14.3 Alternate disk rootvg cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.14.4 Alternate mksysb install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.15 JumpStart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.15.1 Installing the boot server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.15.2 Install server on same subnet as client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.15.3 Install server on different subnet than client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.15.4 Boot install clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.16 Network Installation Management (NIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.16.1 NIM environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.16.2 NIM setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.16.3 Booting a machine over the network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.17 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Chapter 4. System startup and shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.1 The system startup process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.1.1 Useful commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.2 The /etc/inittab file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.3 System shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 4.4 Manage the system environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.5 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Chapter 5. Device management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

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5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.2 Device management in Solaris 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.2.1 Listing device configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.2.2 Managing device drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 5.2.3 Configuring a device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 5.2.4 Adding a new device to a SCSI bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5.2.5 Remove a SCSI device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5.3 Device management in AIX 5L Version 5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 5.3.1 Listing devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 5.3.2 Adding devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5.3.3 Removing a device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5.3.4 Changing a device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 5.4 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Chapter 6. Logical Volume Manager and disk management . . . . . . . . . . 119 6.1 Logical volume management overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6.2 Introducing the logical volume solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 6.2.1 Solaris Solstice DiskSuite: Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 6.2.2 VERITAS Volume Manager: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 6.2.3 AIX 5L Version 5.1 LVM: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.3 Working with logical volume manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 6.3.1 Volume groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 6.3.2 Working with logical volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 6.3.3 Working with physical disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 6.3.4 Additional features: Hotspare disks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 6.4 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Chapter 7. File system management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 7.1.1 Solaris file systems types and commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 7.1.2 AIX file systems types and commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7.2 Formatting and partitioning a disk (Solaris only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 7.3 Creating a file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 7.4 Mounting and unmounting a file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 7.5 Checking file system consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 7.6 Changing file system attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 7.7 Removing a file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 7.8 Displaying a file system information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 7.8.1 Displaying defined file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 7.8.2 Displaying the file systems mount table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 7.8.3 Displaying the available file system space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 7.9 Back up and restore file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 7.10 File system logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

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7.11 Compression and defragmentation (AIX only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 7.11.1 Compressed journaled file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 7.11.2 Defragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 7.12 Paging space management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 7.12.1 Monitoring paging space resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 7.12.2 Adding and activating a paging space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 7.12.3 Changing attributes of a paging space (AIX only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 7.12.4 Removing a paging space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 7.13 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Chapter 8. Backup and restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 8.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 8.2 Backing up files and file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 8.2.1 The ufsdump and backup commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 8.2.2 Backing up files and directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 8.2.3 Backing up file systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 8.3 Restoring files and file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 8.4 Backing up volume groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 8.5 Creating a bootable system image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 8.5.1 Creating system image backups on CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 8.5.2 Restoring the system image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 8.6 Other UNIX backup commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 8.6.1 tar command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 8.6.2 cpio command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 8.6.3 dd command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 8.7 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Chapter 9. Network management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 9.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 9.1.1 TCP/IP V6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 9.2 Configuring network interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 9.2.1 The ifconfig command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 9.3 Configuring TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 9.4 TCP/IP daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 9.4.1 Stopping and restarting TCP/IP daemons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 9.5 Network File System (NFS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 9.5.1 Configuring NFS in Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 9.5.2 Configuring NFS in AIX 5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 9.6 DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 9.6.1 Configuration of DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 9.6.2 Configuring master server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 9.6.3 Configuring the slave name server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 9.6.4 Configuring DNS clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

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9.6.5 nslookup command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 9.6.6 Name resolution order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 9.7 Network Information Service (NIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 9.7.1 Configuring NIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 9.7.2 Configuring NIS master server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 9.7.3 Configuring NIS client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 9.8 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Chapter 10. User management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 10.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 10.2 Adding users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 10.3 Removing users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 10.4 Displaying currently logged users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 10.5 Changing users, passwords, and other attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 10.5.1 Changing a user’s password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 10.5.2 Disabling a user account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 10.5.3 Modifying a user account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 10.6 Customizing a user’s work environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 10.6.1 /etc/security/environ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 10.6.2 /etc/environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 10.6.3 /etc/profile and $HOME/.profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 10.7 Password files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 10.8 Administering groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 10.8.1 Adding a group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 10.8.2 Modifying an existing group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 10.8.3 Deleting a group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 10.9 Checking passwords and group definitions consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 10.10 Defining system resources limits for users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 10.11 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Chapter 11. Process management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 11.1 Overview of process management related commands and tools . . . . . 328 11.2 Listing information about processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 11.3 Sending signals to processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 11.3.1 Killing a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 11.4 Changing the priority of a process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 11.5 Working with jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 11.5.1 Foreground and background processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 11.5.2 Daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 11.5.3 Zombie process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 11.5.4 Starting and stopping a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 11.5.5 Scheduling a process for later operation (the at command) . . . . . 354 11.5.6 Listing all the scheduled processes (at or atq commands) . . . . . . 356

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11.5.7 Removing a process from the schedule (the at command). . . . . . 357 11.6 Binding or unbinding a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 11.7 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Chapter 12. Printer management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 12.1 Printing overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 12.2 AIX print subsystem vs. System V print subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 12.2.1 Switching between the two AIX 5L print subsystems . . . . . . . . . . 368 12.3 Print queue administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 12.3.1 Adding a local print queue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 12.3.2 Displaying a queue configuration information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 12.3.3 Deleting a queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 12.3.4 Enabling and disabling a queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 12.3.5 Cancelling print jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 12.4 Remote printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 12.4.1 Setting the system up as a print server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 12.4.2 Adding a remote host-attached printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 12.5 Printing job management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 12.5.1 Submitting printing jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 12.5.2 Checking status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 12.5.3 Print queue status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 12.5.4 Cancelling a printing job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 12.5.5 Prioritizing a printing job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 12.5.6 Holding and releasing a printing job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 12.5.7 Moving a job between queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 12.6 Printer pooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 12.7 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Chapter 13. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 13.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 13.2 Hardware security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 13.2.1 Sun SPARC hardware security features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 13.2.2 IBM ^ pSeries (RS/6000) hardware security features . . . 403 13.3 Securing Solaris and AIX platforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 13.3.1 Securing a Solaris platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 13.3.2 Securing the AIX platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 13.4 Trusted Computing Base (TCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 13.4.1 Checking the Trusted Computing Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 13.4.2 Using the tcbck command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 13.4.3 Configuring the tcbck program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 13.4.4 Understanding the report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Chapter 14. Performance management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 14.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

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14.2 CPU concepts and performance analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 14.2.1 The lifetime of a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 14.2.2 The process queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 14.2.3 CPU timeslice and process priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 14.2.4 CPU monitoring using sar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 14.3 Memory concepts and performance analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 14.3.1 The AIX Virtual Memory Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 14.3.2 The page stealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 14.3.3 Memory monitoring: vmstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 14.3.4 Advanced memory tools: svmon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 14.3.5 Paging space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 14.4 I/O concepts and performance analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 14.5 Disk and LVM monitoring: iostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 14.5.1 Conclusions for iostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 14.6 Advanced tools: filemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 14.7 Network concepts and performance analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 14.7.1 Network monitoring: netstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 14.7.2 Network tuning techniques and commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 14.8 Introduction to workload management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 14.9 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 Chapter 15. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 15.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 15.2 Error logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 15.2.1 Error logging in Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 15.2.2 Error logging in AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 15.2.3 syslogd daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 15.3 Hardware diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 15.4 System dumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 15.4.1 System dumps in Solaris. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 15.4.2 System dumps in AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 15.4.3 LED codes in AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 15.5 Event tracing on AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 15.5.1 Starting the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 15.5.2 Trace report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 15.6 Quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 Appendix A. Object Data Manager (ODM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 ODM components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 ODM commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Changing attribute values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Location and contents of ODM repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

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ODM device configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IBM Redbooks collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

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513 513 513 514 515 515

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517

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Figures 1-1 3-1 3-2 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 6-1 7-1 8-1 9-1 9-2 10-1 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-7 14-1 14-2 14-3 14-4 14-5

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002

Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Installation flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Configuration Assistant menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 The configuration manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Changing operating system parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Changing the attributes for sys0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Device states and ODM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Logical storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 File systems management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Backup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 NIS menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Web-based System Manager users and groups management . . . . . . 294 Web-based System Manager processes main window . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 The top 10 processes list in Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . . 335 Listing all processes using Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . . . 336 Using the Selected menu in Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . . 336 Terminating a process using Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . 344 Changing priority of a process using Web-based System Manager . . 349 Binding a process using the Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . . 360 Performance tuning flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Process and thread states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Run queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Process queue (sar -q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 The page stealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

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Tables 1-1 1-2 1-3 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 5-1 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 7-1 7-2 7-3 8-1 9-1 9-2 9-3 10-1 11-1 12-1 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-5 12-6

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002

SMIT symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 SMIT function keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Architecture types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Software terminology for AIX 5L Version 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Solaris 8 installation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 AIX 5L Version 5.1 installation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 System requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Quick reference for installing and upgrading tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Solaris Run levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 SMS services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Command flags for the alog command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Command flags for the bootlist command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 The halt command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Frequently used options of the shutdown command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 System environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Quick reference for system startup and shutdown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Quick reference for device management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Naming conventions for DiskSuite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Naming conventions for VxVM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Physical storage rules in AIX 5L Version 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Max number of PPs per disk in a normal VG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Naming conventions for LVM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 LVM quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Journaled file system differences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 fsck command flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Quick reference for file system management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Quick reference for backup and restore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Interface naming conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 ifconfig functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Quick reference for network management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Quick reference for user management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Quick reference for process management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 System V, BSD, and AIX print commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 List jobs in a printer queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 qchk attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Queue status modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Cancel a print job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Quick reference for printer management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

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Password setting and required passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VMM differences between AIX 5L Version 5.1 and Solaris 8 Example of class assignment rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quick reference for performance management . . . . . . . . . . . Quick reference for troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example of ODM class PdAt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . .

405 444 471 473 497 501

Notices This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A. IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult your local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to: IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A. The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such provisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you. This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any time without notice. Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of the materials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk. IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you. Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate them as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products. All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual business enterprise is entirely coincidental. COPYRIGHT LICENSE: This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programming techniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing application programs conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes of developing, using, marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBM's application programming interfaces.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002

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Trademarks The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both: AIX® AIX 5L™ CICS® DB2® IBM® IBM eServer™ Infoprint® Language Environment® Micro Channel®

MORE™ Perform™ Power Series® PowerPC® PowerPC 750™ POWERserver® pSeries™ Redbooks™ Redbooks (logo)™

RISC System/6000® RS/6000® SecureWay® Sequent® SP™ Tivoli® WebSphere®

The IBM eServer brand consists of the established IBM e-business logo with the following descriptive term “server” following it. The following terms are trademarks of other companies: ActionMedia, LANDesk, MMX, Pentium and ProShare are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both. C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. SET, SET Secure Electronic Transaction, and the SET Logo are trademarks owned by SET Secure Electronic Transaction LLC. Itanium is a trademark of Intel Corporation. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.

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Preface In today’s heterogeneous computer environments, especially in UNIX servers and workstations, it is essential that the system administrator have basic knowledge of different operating systems. This redbook is written for Sun Solaris administrators who wants to transfer their knowledge of Solaris UNIX skills to the AIX 5L operating system. This redbook will basically compare system administration tasks in Solaris 8 to AIX 5L Version 5.1. But it is not the intention of this redbook to decide which operating system is the better of the two. This redbook shows the reader similarities and differences between each operating system. This redbook will also introduce Solaris administrators to IBM ^ pSeries hardware. It is assumed that the reader of this redbook already has Solaris 8 system administration skills, and are familiar with Sun hardware. In the first section on each chapter, we will briefly mention how the Solaris tasks are carried out. It is not the intention of this redbook to describe in detail how systems administrator tasks are performed in Sun Solaris. In the last section of each chapter, we will provide a quick reference that will be handy to use. This redbook will demonstrate some ways to complete each administrative task, but not all ways to do it, because there are many different ways to do the same task in Solaris and AIX 5L operating systems. For example, in the AIX 5L operating system, system administrators can do many of the same tasks using three different ways: Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or commands on the command line. This redbook is a valuable tool for system administrators and other technical support personnel who deal with AIX 5L and Solaris operating systems. In this redbook, the following topics will be covered: 򐂰 Systems administration overview 򐂰 Introduction to IBM ^ pSeries (and RS/6000) architectures 򐂰 Software packaging 򐂰 Installing and upgrading tasks 򐂰 System startup and shutdown 򐂰 Device management 򐂰 Logical volume manager and disk management 򐂰 File system management

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002

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򐂰 Backup and recovery 򐂰 Network management 򐂰 User management 򐂰 Process management 򐂰 Printing management 򐂰 Security 򐂰 Performance management 򐂰 Troubleshooting

The team that wrote this redbook This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. KyeongWon Jeong is a Consulting IT Specialist at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. He writes extensively on AIX and education materials and teaches IBM classes worldwide on all areas of AIX. Before joining the ITSO three years ago, he worked in IBM Global Learning Services in Korea as a Senior Education Specialist and was a class manager of all AIX classes for customers and interns. He has many years of teaching and development experience. He is an IBM Certified Advanced Technical Expert - RS/6000 AIX. Arkadiusz Rybakowski is a System Engineer and works for ComputerLand S.A., an IBM Business Partner in Poland. He has three years of experience in RS/6000, AIX, HACMP, and six years of experience in SUN Solaris Operating Environment. He is an IBM Certified Advanced Technical Expert - RS/6000 AIX and also a SUN Certified System and Network Administrator for the latest versions of Solaris. Juan Murguia is an IT Specialist in Mexico. He has nine years of experience in AIX systems management. He holds several AIX management, HACMP, and IBM storage certifications. His areas of expertise include Solaris systems, Storage Area Network implementation, and HACMP. Sivaramakrishna Perubotla is an IT Engineer in Cognizant Technology Solutions, India. He supports different projects running on Solaris and AIX platforms. He has seven years of experience in the IT industry. He holds a certification in the Sun Solaris environment. His areas of expertise include Solaris, AIX, IRIX, and mainframe administration.

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Terje Tonnessen is an IT Specialist in IBM Global Services in Norway. He has eight years of experience in UNIX systems management within the oil and gas sector. He holds several certifications within the Sun Solaris operating environment. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center Keigo Matsubara, Chris Blatchley, Wade Wallace IBM Austin Kim Trans, George Schumann, Gerald McBrearty IBM Atlanta Ken Sohal IBM France Gilles Rigitano IBM New York Anita Govindjee IBM Philadelphia Rob Jackard VERITAS Software Corporations Ram Pandiri and Fred Sherman

Comments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: 򐂰 Use the online Contact us review redbook form found at: ibm.com/redbooks

򐂰 Send your comments in an Internet note to: [email protected]

򐂰 Mail your comments to the address on page ii.

Preface

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Chapter 1.

Overview In this chapter, the following topics will be covered: 򐂰 Overview of the main features for Solaris 7 and Solaris 8 򐂰 Overview of the main features for AIX Version 4.3 and AIX 5L Version 5.1 򐂰 Systems administration overview 򐂰 Introduction to IBM ^ pSeries (and RS/6000) architectures

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002

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1.1 Solaris and AIX: A quick feature summary This section is an overview of the main features of Solaris and AIX operating systems.

1.1.1 Overview of features for Solaris 7 and Solaris 8 The Solaris 7 release is marketed under the name Solaris 7 Operating Environment. This marks a change in naming; the "2." has been eliminated (as in the previous Solaris 2.6 Version) and the new name is simply Solaris 7 Operating Environment. This release marks a new version of the operating environment, as well as the new naming scheme.

Solaris 7 features 򐂰 Full 64-bit functionality 򐂰 TCP with Selective Acknowledgment 򐂰 Industry-leading Java technology performance 򐂰 Web-based installation for the Solaris Operating Environment and Solaris applications 򐂰 Web-based administration and configuration 򐂰 Global-ready and Year 2000 compliant 򐂰 Dynamic reconfiguration 򐂰 UNIX File System (UFS) logging 򐂰 Kernel debugging enhancements 򐂰 Improved core dump analysis 򐂰 Hot-plug capability 򐂰 Improved kernel errors and events logging

Solaris 8 features 򐂰 Sun Cluster updates as well as tighter integration with the Solaris Operating Environment 򐂰 Solaris Resource Manager and Solaris Bandwidth Manager software updates 򐂰 Dynamic Reconfiguration: Improved to support networking (multipathing/load balancing) 򐂰 Live Upgrade: Upgrades installed online through a simple reboot 򐂰 Hot Patching for Diagnostics: Kernel patching done by Sun Enterprise Services

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򐂰 Failed Device Lockout: Failed or failing devices automatically taken offline during reboot 򐂰 IPv6: Next-generation Internet Protocol (IP), with virtually no limits on addresses 򐂰 IPSec: IP security, to prevent identity spoofing and build virtual private networks 򐂰 Mobile IP: Manages mobile devices with IP addresses to prevent data loss 򐂰 Java Virtual Machine JVM Scalability Improvements: Performance improves linearly as CPUs are added 򐂰 Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM): Standards-based system management 򐂰 Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): More granular security, reduces the need for a "super user" 򐂰 Reconfiguration Coordination Manager: Automated Dynamic Reconfiguration management 򐂰 Removable Media: Jazz, Zip, DVD, and so on.

1.1.2 Overview of features of AIX Version 4.3 and AIX 5L Version 5.1 Support for 64-bit architecture is provided by AIX Version 4.3. This support provides improved performance for specialized applications with: 򐂰 Large address spaces (up to 16,384,000 terabytes) 򐂰 Access to large datasets for data warehousing, scientific, and multimedia applications 򐂰 Long integers in computations A major enhancement in AIX 5L Version 5.1 is the introduction of the 64-bit kernel. The primary advantage of a 64-bit kernel is the increased kernel address space, allowing systems to support increased workloads. This ability is important for a number of reasons: 򐂰 Data sharing and I/O device sharing are simplified if multiple applications can be run on the same system 򐂰 More powerful systems will reduce the number of systems needed by an organization, thereby reducing the cost and complexity of system administration

Chapter 1. Overview

3

Server consolidation and workload scalability will continue to require higher capacity hardware systems that support more memory and additional I/O devices. The 64-bit AIX 5L Version 5.1 kernel is designed to support these requirements.

AIX Version 4.3.3 features 򐂰 Significant AIX scalability enhancements for 24-way SMP systems 򐂰 AIX Workload Management system with a policy-based method for managing system workload and system resources 򐂰 AIX exploitation of SecureWay Directory for users and groups 򐂰 Increased network performance and scalability for e-business 򐂰 Improved system availability with support for online Journaled File System (JFS) backup and concurrent mirroring and striping 򐂰 Enhanced RAS and improved serviceability features 򐂰 NIS+ network information management system 򐂰 Enhanced file and print capability 򐂰 Mechanical Computer-Aided AIX Developer Kit, Java Technology Edition, Version 1.1.8 򐂰 Enhanced ease-of-use capabilities, including additional Web-based System Manager Task Guides and SMIT support

AIX 5L Version 5.1 features 򐂰 New Journal File System 2 (JFS2) File System 򐂰 Selectable Logical Track Group (LTG): Helps administrators tune disk storage for optimum performance 򐂰 Virtual IP Address (VIPA): Helps applications remain available if a network connection is lost 򐂰 IP Multipath Routing: Improves network availability by providing multiple routes to a destination 򐂰 Multiple Default Gateways and Routers: Keeps traffic moving through a network by detecting and routing around dead gateways 򐂰 Extended Memory Allocator: Helps improve performance of applications that request large numbers of small memory blocks 򐂰 Native Kerberos V5 Authentication (POWER only) 򐂰 /proc file system: Helps system administrators more easily review system workloads and processes for corrective action 򐂰 RMC: Automates system monitoring, thereby helping to improve system availability and performance

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򐂰 UNIX System V Release 4 (SVR4): Printing allows users comfortable with SVR4 print utilities to more easily use AIX 򐂰 Accounting in Workload Manager: Allows users to collect system resource usage information for billing or reporting purposes

1.2 Systems administration overview Both Solaris 8 and AIX 5L have different tools for the system administrator. For Solaris 8, there is a range of products, such as Admintool, Admin suite, Admin wizard, Management console, Management center, and so on. In the following section, we will describe the main administrator tools for AIX.

1.2.1 System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) For AIX, there are basically two powerful tools for the system administrator. System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) is the most used administration tool for AIX system managers today. SMIT offers the following features: 򐂰 Two modes of operation 򐂰 An interactive, menu-driven user interface 򐂰 User assistance 򐂰 System management activity logging 򐂰 Fast paths to system management tasks 򐂰 User-added SMIT screens

Modes of operation SMIT runs in two modes: ASCII (non-graphical) and Xwindows (graphical). ASCII SMIT can run on both terminals and graphical displays. The graphical mode, which supports a mouse and point-and-click operations, can be run only on a graphical display and with Xwindows support. The ASCII mode is often the preferred way to run SMIT, because it can be run from any display. To start the ASCII mode, type the following command: # smitty or smit -C

To start the graphical mode, type: # smit or smit -m

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Note that the function keys used in the ASCII version of SMIT do not correspond to actions in the graphical SMIT. We will describe the details in Table 1-2 on page 8.

SMIT selector screen Example 1-1 shows the SMIT selector screen. Example 1-1 SMIT selector screen +--------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Available Network Interfaces | | | | Move cursor to desired item and press Enter. | | | | en0 10-80 Standard Ethernet Network Interface | | et0 10-80 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Network Interface | | tr0 10-88 Token Ring Network Interface | | | | F1=Help F2=Refresh F3=Cancel | | F8=Image F10=Exit Enter=Do | | /=Find n=Find Next | +--------------------------------------------------------------------------+

A selector screen is a special version of a dialog screen in which there is only one value to change. This value of the object is used to determine which subsequent dialog to display.

SMIT dialog screen Example 1-2 shows the SMIT dialog screen. Example 1-2 SMIT dialog screen Add a Group Type or select values in entry fields. Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes. [Entry Fields] [] false + [] # [] + [] +

* Group NAME ADMINISTRATIVE group? Group ID USER list ADMINISTRATOR list

F1=Help

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F2=Refresh

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F3=Cancel

F4=List

F5=Reset F9=Shell

F6=Command F10=Exit

F7=Edit Enter=Do

F8=Image

A dialog screen allows you to enter input values to the selected operation. Some fields will already be filled in with default values in the system. Usually, you can change this value. To enter data, move the highlighted bar to the value you want to change and then either enter a value or select one from a pop-up list. Fields that you can type in are indicated by square brackets ([]). Fields that have data that is larger than the space available to display it are indicated by angle brackets (<>), to indicate that there is data further to the left or right (or both) of the display area. Table 1-1 shows the different SMIT symbols. Special symbols on the screen are used to indicate how data is to be entered. Table 1-1 SMIT symbols Symbols in SMIT dialog screens

Explanation

*

A required field.

#

A numeric value is required for this field.

/

A path name is required for this field.

X

A hexadecimal value is required for this field.

?

The value entered will not be displayed.

+

A pop-up list or ring is available.

An * symbol in the left-most column of a line indicates that the field is required. A value must be entered here before you can commit the dialog and execute the command. In the ASCII version, a + is used to indicate that a pop-up list or ring is available. To access a pop-up list, use the F4 key. A ring is a special type of list. If a fixed number of options are available, the Tab key can be used to cycle through the options. In the Motif version, a List button is displayed. Either click the button or press Ctrl-L to get a pop-up window to select from.

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The following keys can be used while in the menus and dialog screens. Some keys are only valid in particular screens. Those valid only for the ASCII interface are marked (A) and those valid only for the Motif interface are marked (M). Table 1-2 gives an overview over all function keys. Table 1-2 SMIT function keys

8

Function keys

Explanation

F1 (or ESC-1)

Help: Show contextual help information.

F2 (or ESC-2)

Refresh: Redraw the display (A).

F3 (or ESC-3)

Cancel: Return to the previous screen (A).

F4 (or ESC-4)

List: Display a pop-up list of possible values (A).

F5 (or ESC-5)

Reset: Restore the original value of an entry field.

F6 (or ESC-6)

Command: Show the AIX command that will be executed.

F7 (or ESC-7)

Edit: A field in a pop-up box or select from a multi-selection pop-up list.

F8 (or ESC-8)

Image: Save the current screen to a file (A) and show the current fast path.

F9 (or ESC-9)

Shell: Start a sub-shell (A).

F9

Reset all fields (M).

F10 (or ESC-0)

Exit: Exit SMIT immediately (A).

F10

Go to command bar (M).

F12

Exit: Exit SMIT immediately (M).

Ctrl-L

List: Give a pop-up list of possible values (M).

PgDn (or Ctrl-V)

Scroll down one page.

PgUp (or ESC-V)

Scroll up one page.

Home (or ESC-<)

Go to the top of the scrolling region.

End (or ESC->)

Go to the bottom of the scrolling region.

Enter

Do the current command or select from a single-selection pop-up list.

AIX Reference for Sun Solaris Administrators

Function keys

Explanation

/text

Finds the text in the output.

n

Finds the next occurrence of the text.

SMIT output screen Example 1-3 shows the SMIT output screen. Example 1-3 SMIT output screen COMMAND STATUS Command: OK

stdout: yes

stderr: no

Before command completion, additional instructions may appear below. system 0 staff 1 bin 2 sys 3 adm 4 uucp 5 mail 6 security cron 8 printq 9 audit 10 ecs 28 nobody -2 usr 100 perf 20 shutdown lp 11 imnadm 188

F1=Help F8=Image n=Find Next

true false true true true true true 7 true true true true false false false 21 true false

root files invscout,snapp,daemon root,bin files root,bin,sys files bin,adm files nuucp,uucp files files true root files root files lp files root files files nobody,lpd files guest files files true files root,lp,printq files imnadm files

F2=Refresh F9=Shell

files

F3=Cancel F10=Exit

F6=Command /=Find

The Command field can have the following values: OK, RUNNING, and FAILED. Note that in the Motif version there is a running man icon in the top right hand corner of the screen that is used to indicate this value.

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stdout is the standard output, that is, there is output produced as a result of running the command. The output will be displayed in the body section of this screen. stderr is the error messages, if there are any. In Example 1-3 on page 9, there is no error message. The body of the screen holds the output/error messages of the command output in Example 1-3 on page 9. To read an in-depth article about SMIT, go to the following Web site: http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/whitepapers/smit.html

1.2.2 Web-based System Manager Web-based System Manager is a graphical user interface administration tool for AIX 5L Version 5.1. This is a Java based comprehensive suite of system management tool for AIX 5L. To start the Web-based System Manager, type the following command at the command line of the graphical console: # wsm

Figure 1-1 on page 11 shows the Web-based System Manager.

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Figure 1-1 Web-based System Manager

The AIX 5L release of Web-based System Manager utilizes a management console capable of administering multiple AIX 5L hosts on Power hardware. The Web-based System Manager can be run in stand-alone mode, that is, you can use this tool to perform system administration functions on the AIX system you are currently running on. However, the Web-based System Manager also supports a client-server environment. In this environment, it is possible to administer an AIX system from a remote PC or from another AIX system using a graphics terminal. In this environment, the AIX system being administered is the server and the system you are performing the administration functions from is the client. The client can operate in either application mode on AIX with Java 1.3 or in applet mode on platforms that support Java 1.3. Thus, the AIX system can be managed from another AIX system or from a PC running Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows NT.

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The objectives of the Web-based System Manager are: 򐂰 Simplification of AIX administration by a single interface 򐂰 Enable AIX systems to be administered from almost any client platform (client must have a browser that supports Java 1.3) 򐂰 Enable AIX systems to be administered remotely 򐂰 Provide a system administration environment that provides a similar look and feel to the Windows and AIX CDE environments The Web-based System Manager provides a comprehensive system management environment and covers most of the tasks in the SMIT user interface. The Web-based System Manager can only be run from a graphics terminal, so SMIT will need to be used in the ASCII environment.

1.3 Introduction to pSeries (and RS/6000) architectures In February 1990, IBM introduced the first RISC System/6000 (RS/6000) with the first Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC (POWER) architecture. Since that date, several POWER architectures have been designed for the RS/6000 models. The PowerPC family of microprocessors, a single-chip implementation jointly developed by Apple, IBM, and Motorola, established a rapidly expanding market for RISC-based hardware and software. IBM has many successful lines of PowerPC-based products for workstations and servers. Motorola introduced a broad range of desktop and server systems, and other companies such as Bull, Canon, and FirePower have announced or shipped PowerPC-based systems. Apple has Power Macintosh systems, and companies such as Daystar, Pioneer, Power Computing, and Radius also have announced Power Macintosh-compatible systems. With these successes the alliance ended, leaving IBM to continue building on its CPU architecture and design, which can be seen with the introduction of the powerful copper technology deployed in the S80 and 690 servers.

RS/6000 system bus types The job of the bus is to provide the highway for information to flow between the RS/6000 system elements and the optional I/O feature cards (for example, SCSI adapters and Ethernet cards) that are plugged into the adapter slots.

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PCI Based RS/6000 systems Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) buses are an open industry specification that supports complete processor independence. The PCI bus works across multiple operating system platforms. IBM uses this technology in all of its RS/6000s. RS/6000s also contain an Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus for use with some built-in devices, such as the diskette drive and keyboard. Some older model PCI systems also contain ISA slots that would accept standard ISA cards. Newer models no longer support this. The first RS/6000s were based on IBM's Micro Channel Architecture (MCA). The MCA systems are sometimes referred to as classical systems. These were very popular. MCA machines can be easily recognized by the physical key on the front of the machines. PCI and MCA are basically the same from an administrative viewpoint. There are differences primarily in the startup procedure.

Architecture types AIX 5L Version 5.1 supports three architecture types (see Table 1-3). Table 1-3 Architecture types Architecture

Processor

Description

rs6k

POWER

This is the original or “classic” RS/6000 workstation, based on the microchannel bus.

rspc

POWER

POWER Reference Platform, based on the PCI bus.

chrp

POWER

Common Hardware Reference Platform, based on the PCI bus.

The bootinfo -p command returns the system architecture type.

1.3.1 POWER2 Super Chip The next microprocessor launched by IBM was the POWER2 Super Chip (P2SC) processor. This microprocessor was first introduced in the RS/6000 Model 595. Currently, the P2SC processors are employed only in the RS/6000 SP Thin4 nodes, where they run at a clock speed of 160 MHz, with a theoretical peak speed of 640 MEGAFLOPS.

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The POWER2 Super Chip (P2SC) is a compression of the POWER2 eight-chip architecture into a single chip with increased processor speed and performance. It retains the design of its predecessor, the POWER2. The initial models had clock speeds of 120 MHz and 135 MHz. High-density CMOS-6S technology allows each to incorporate 15,000,000 transistors.

1.3.2 POWER3 POWER3 was the next microprocessor developed by IBM. The POWER3 microprocessor introduces a generation of 64-bit processors especially designed for high performance and visual computing applications. POWER3 processors are the replacement for the POWER2 and POWER2 Super Chips (P2SC) in high-end RS/6000 workstations and technical servers. The POWER3 processor was designed to provide high performance floating point computation. This type of microprocessor are widely used in such areas as the oil and gas industry, reservoir simulation and seismic processing, and weather forecast prediction. The POWER3 is designed for frequencies of up to 600 MHz when fabricated with advanced semiconductor technologies, such as copper metallurgy and silicon-on-insulator (SOI). In contrast, the P2SC design has reached its peak operating frequency at 160 MHz. The first POWER3 based system, RS/6000 43P 7043 Model 260, runs at 200 MHz.

1.3.3 POWER3 II chip The POWER3 II is a third generation super scalar design that is used for 64-bit technical and scientific applications. The POWER3 and POWER3 II microprocessor are very similar, and the use of chopper and increased number of transistors in POWER 3 II is the main difference. This processor operates between 333 and 400 MHz.

1.3.4 PowerPC The PowerPC family of processors was started by the alliance between Apple, Motorola, and IBM in 1991. This alliance established a rapidly expanding market for RISC-based hardware and software. The IBM PowerPC architecture has a whole range of variants, most of them still used in workstation and server products. Both processors have a 32-bit architecture, and both processors give the performance needed to support graphics, computation, and multimedia-intensive applications.

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The 604e is a 32-bit implementation of the PowerPC architecture, with clock speeds of 233-375 MHz. PowerPC 750 is another model of the PowerPC chip. This is a second 32-bit implementation, clocked between 300-466 MHz.

1.3.5 RS64 processor family The RS64 processor is a second 64-bit implementation, clocked at 262 MHz and 340 MHz. There are four generations of this processor. The main characteristic of the RS64-II processor is that it will run at 262 MHz, compared with 125 MHz for the previous RS64 processor. This chip also has an 8 MB cache, which is double the previous amount. In summary, the RS64 Series processors are very robust, delivering real performance on real applications for the next generation of 64-bit RISC commercial and server processors, all while retaining optimum chip size and power. They achieve high performance on real applications because of their low latency design and IBM's superior silicon technology. The RS64 Series can be expected to lead the commercial and server benchmarks for years to come. Additional information may be obtained from the following Web site: http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/library/wp_systems.html

1.3.6 POWER4 The POWER4 processor was designed to operate at speeds of over 1 GHz and can handle commercial and technical workloads. Business applications include attributes from both commercial and technical workloads. Binary compatibility with 64-bit PowerPC architecture is maintained. One of the main characteristics is that one single POWER4 processor chip contains two POWER4 processors. The IBM ^ pSeries 690 is the first pSeries model that utilizes this microprocessor. In April 2002, IBM disclosed information about its future server chips. IBM plans to endow its POWER5 and POWER6 processors with an ability called “Fast Path” to take over tasks that software currently handles more slowly. POWER5 will be able to take over software tasks commonly used in the operating system, such as packaging data to be sent to networks. POWER6 will extend its reach further, taking over tasks now handled by higher-level software, such as IBM or Oracle database software or IBM's WebSphere e-commerce software. Additional information may be obtained from the following Web site: http://www.chips.ibm.com

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Chapter 2.

Software packaging This chapter contains the following topics: 򐂰 Overview 򐂰 Software packaging in Solaris 8 򐂰 Software packaging in AIX 5L

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002

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2.1 Overview In this chapter, we discuss how the installables are named in the Solaris and AIX operating systems. We also discuss the naming conventions and the package definitions of Solaris 8 and AIX 5L Version 5.1.

2.2 Software packaging in Solaris 8 In Solaris 8, software which can be installed comes in three parts. They are: 򐂰 Packages 򐂰 Clusters 򐂰 Configuration clusters

Packages A software package is a collection of a group of files and directories. Normally, the software is delivered in bundled or unbundled packages. Packages are managed by package administration commands and via GUI adm. tools. The naming convention of the packages is SUNWxxx. For example, SUNWpd package contains the files and directories related to the PCI drivers.

Clusters Software clusters are logical collection of packages. For example, the USB drivers cluster is a collection of the following packages: SUNWusb SUNWusbu SUNWusbx

USB Device Drivers USB Headers USB Device Drivers (64-bit)

Configuration clusters Configuration clusters are collections of packages and clusters. These configuration clusters are divided into five types. Each configuration cluster contains support for different hardware drivers and different functions. Depending upon your requirements, you can select these software configuration clusters at the time of installation. The following are the different types of configuration clusters: Core

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AIX Reference for Sun Solaris Administrators

This configuration cluster contains the basic software required to boot the system and run the Solaris operating environment (required operating system files). It can be used to configure a stand-alone system, but not a server. This configuration does not contain the

CDE or Open Windows software, but it contains the drivers to run the CDE and Open Windows environment. End User

This configuration cluster contains CDE and Open Windows apart from the core configuration cluster.

Developer

This configuration cluster contains the End User configuration cluster and the support for development of software. It includes header files, libraries, and so on. It does not contain any programming language compilers.

Entire distribution

This configuration cluster contains the Developer cluster configuration and software that are required to run as a server. This contains the entire Solaris release.

Entire distribution Plus OEM

This configuration cluster contains the Entire distribution configuration cluster and additional (third party) device drivers.

2.3 Software packaging in AIX 5L Similar to Solaris 8, AIX 5L also has a specific terminology related to installable software. In this section, we describe the different AIX terminology installable software. Now, let us take a look at the packaging terminology. There are four basic package concepts in AIX 5L: fileset, package, LPP, and bundle.

Fileset A fileset is the smallest individually installable unit. It is a collection of files that provides a specific function. For example, the bos.net.tcp.client is a fileset in the bos.net package.

Fileset naming convention Filesets follow a standard naming convention. It looks like: LPP.msg[.lang].package.fileset The LPP will be the first part of every fileset name. For example, all file sets within the BOS program product will have ‘bos’ at the beginning of their name. If a package has only one installable fileset, then the fileset name may be the same as the package name, for example, bos.INed.

Chapter 2. Software packaging

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The following are the standard fileset suffixes: .adt

Application Development Toolkit for the Licensed Program Product

.com

Common code between two similar filesets

.compat

Compatibility code that will be removed in a future release of the License Program Product.

.data

/usr/share portion of a fileset

.dev

Device support for that Licensed Program Product

.diag

Diagnostics for a fileset

.fnt

Font portion of a fileset

.help[lang]

Translated help files for that Licensed Program Product

.loc

Locale for that Licensed Program Product

.mp

Multi-processor specific code for a fileset

.msg[lang]

Translated messages

.rte

Run time or minimum set

.smit

SMIT tools and dialogs for a fileset

.ucode

Microcode for a fileset

.up

Uniprocessor specific code for a file set

With the message libraries associated with LPPs, the language is also part of the naming convention.

Package A package contains a group of filesets with a common function. This is a single installable image, for example, bos.net.

Package names The following are examples of the packages in the AIX Basic Operating System:

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bos.acct

Accounting Services: Contains accounting services that support or enhance the base operating system (BOS).

bos.adt

Base Application Development Toolkit: Contains commands, files, and libraries required to develop software applications.

bos.diag

Hardware Diagnostics: Contains the Diagnostic Controller for the hardware diagnostics package.

AIX Reference for Sun Solaris Administrators

bos.docregister